"Kirman") are one of the traditional classifications of Persian
carpets. They are named after Kerman, which is both a city and a province
located in south central Iran, though as with other such designations the term
describes a type which may have been manufactured somewhere else. Kerman has
been a major center for the production of high quality carpets since at least
the 15th century. In the 18th century, some authors considered the carpets from
the province of Kerman, especially at Siftan, to be the finest Persian
carpets, partly because of the high quality of the wool from the region,
·  known as Carmania wool.
4 See also
Still, in the 19th century, the city of Kirman had a
reputation for its carpets, attributed to a very long history of urban
workshops, the supply of a very fine wool, the presence of master weavers and
the artistic superiority of local designs. After Nader Shah, Naser al-Din
Shah commissioned carpets from Kerman. Among the more famous Kerman carpet
producers of the 19th century include Costigian, Ghastili and Dilmaghani,
the latter still in operation & considered an important connection of 19th
and 20th century production of carpets in Kerman. May Beattie has defined 7
classes of Kerman carpets and identified a unique structure she called the
"Vase technique" characterised by three shoots of weft between rows
of knots. The first and third are typically woolen and at high tension,
while the second one, at low tension, is normally made of silk or cotton. Warps
are markedly displaced and the Persian knot is open to the left. This technique
distinguishes Kerman carpets from both the Safavid (1501-1722) and subsequent
(1722-1834) periods." Most Persian carpets, in contrast, used the
"Turkish knot". Kirman carpets of the 18th century and later very
often use "lattice" patterns, with the central field divided by a
lattice design giving many small compartments. A notable illustration is a
carpet having belonged to William Morris, now on display at the Victoria and
Albert Museum. Later all sorts of designs were made in Kirman, including
large figurative ones. The Victoria and Albert Museum in London has a carpet of
1909 with a design copying a painting by the 18th century French artist Antoine
Watteau. The dye process for Kerman carpets occurred while the wool was
still in flock and before spinning, allowing for uniform color. The palette for
Kerman carpets is as brilliant as it is varied. Tones can range from ivory,
blue and magenta to a more golden and saffron cast.
The design pattern of Kerman carpets are also a distinct
feature. Vase carpets, a type of Kerman rug distinctive of the 16th and 17th
centuries, are characterized by an allover pattern of stylized flowers and
oversized palmettes with vases placed throughout the field.
Another rare and distinct variation of Kerman carpets is the
Lavar or Ravar Kerman. Although Lavar is the improper name, some are still
labeled as such. These carpets were produced in Ravar village next to Kerman
city in the northern region, and are known particularly for their fine weave
and elegant, classically derived design of allover and central medallion formats.
Whether Ravar Kerman or Kerman, these antique rugs can boast
fine woven reproductions of European paintings, as well as curvilinear, dense
allover floral patterns. Floral patterns woven into Kerman carpets are
derivative of shawls for which Kerman was also the center of producing in the
early to mid- 19th century. Most Ravar or Lavar Kerman carpets include a
signature, either that of the weaver or to whom the carpet was woven for.
Kerman rugs and carpets were woven in all sizes, some
extending out to 10 feet. Typical manufacturing used an asymmetrical knot on
cotton foundation, but rare examples include silk or part silk piles, or silk
foundations with wool pile.
A Kerman "Vase carpet" from middle of the XVII,
estimated at 900 euro by the Kunstauktionshaus Georg Rehm in Augsburg, was six
months later sold at Christie's in London for 7,5 million euro. It was a record
for both carpets and islamic art in general. This particular carpet,
though, had no vase on it; only a continuing pattern of intricately joined
leaves that gave the design an unusual energy and charm, it consists of a
Herati all-over pattern spread throughout the indigo-blue field of the carpet.
But it was the weaving technique that alerted the dealer to the fact that it
might be a “vase” carpet all the same. By the 17th century, when this carpet
was made, Kirman's designers were at their most inventive and their weaving
techniques of a sophistication not seen in other parts of the Persian empire.
The weavers had learned to set their looms so that the cotton warps were on two
different levels. They then threaded the wool wefts, leaving some tight and
others sinuous, giving an immediately recognisable wavy finish to the surface
of the carpet. The carpet had an excellent provenance, having belonged to the
legendary French art collector the Comtesse de Béhague, Martine de Behague
(1870-1939), who formed a stunning collection of antiquities, Iranian art and
Wyndham; Savary des Brusions, Jacques (1773). Lex mercatoria redivida. James
Williams. p. 644.
(1747). Chronicon rusticum-commerciale. T. Osborne. p. 462.
Masson de Morvillier, Nicolas (1784).
Encyclopédie méthodique: géographie moderne, vol 2 (in French). Panckouke. p.
a b Maktabi, 336
Nemati "Rugs as an Investment" 1980,
Magazine 1993, p.74
H. (1976). Carpets of Central Persia: With Special Reference to the Rugs of
Kirman. ISBN 978-0-905035-17-8. Text "Al Tajir-World of Islam Trust"
V&A. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
Watteau Kirman carpet
900-Euro-Teppich, der jetzt 7,5 Millionen kostet